Check out my new post on the academic life histories blog here
Check out my new post on the academic life histories blog here
I’m going to get this out of the way and first say…presentations are terrifying…for me, they are anyway. BUT my adversity to public speaking has definitely become less daunting over with repeated exposure. I’m not sure why, but throughout my ENTIRE undergraduate degree. I never had to stand up and give a presentation, so when I had to give my first presentation in my Masters I had no idea what I was doing…
Now there is no one way to give a good presentation, but below I have compiled some tips and words of wisdom I collected throughout the years on how to make presentations an enjoyable experience for yourself and your audience too.
My first and foremost tip for anyone who is uncomfortable with public speaking is to plan ahead so you can have enough time to prep. I am an anxious person, I literally schedule a two week reminder for when I have to give a talk, so I have enough time to think about the audience, the story, the format and style.
When it comes to really nailing a talk, practice and feedback is key. Although too much practice can also be a bad thing! You don’t want to come across as too scripted or even bored because you have practiced too much! Testing out your talk helps you get into the flow of speaking in front of other people, it also helps you identify parts of the talk where you are stumbling on etc. Recording yourself is also another good way to do this.
Organise a practice session with your lab group, your office buddies and other students that might be presenting at the same event! Seeing other people’s talks can also spark ideas for your own. Practice with people that you feel comfortable to receive (and give) honest, constructive feedback, because that is the only way to improve. I find practicing with people that are not directly in my own field invaluable. I practice with my writing group which consists of a bacteria bioinformatician, a marine biologist, a plant geneticist, an avian evolutionary biologist and a invertebrate ecologist and honestly….this is where I get the best feedback. Explaining concepts to a broader audience helps you communicate your ideas more effectively. If you can explain a highly specialised jargon-y concept to someone not working in your field, then you are winning at science communication!
Depending on what type of speaker you are, the amount of text on the slide is really up to you. If you need some bullet points as prompts, then do it! But let’s all remember a time where we painfully watched someone read off their slides… again balance is important!
I never use animations. There is just too much room for error when transferring your files between different operating systems etc. However, I do use multiple slides to sequentially pop up elements on my slide. Like a flipbook, each slide is almost the same of the previous slide but with some small adjustments. (See here for some examples). I end up with a lot more slides but now I have fail-proof animations! Another trick is to export and transfer your slides as a .pdf so all your customised text and figures don’t move because of incompatibilities between different computers
Sequential ‘pop ups’ help you guide your audience’s attention to exactly what you want them to focus on. Do all the work for your audience by walking them through your argument step-by-step. Never assume they know what you mean. I use a lot of boxes to conceal parts of graphs, I cover my data, and first explain the axes, I even put some made-up data to show them how to interpret these when I finally reveal my own graph. Here’s one of my recent presentation as an example
The presentation, you can practice, you know what will happen. But with question time…it is a mixed bag. One trick I’ve been told is to anticipate what kind of questions you might get.
Think about: “If I watched my talk, what would I ask?”. Practice sessions can help you identify these as well. My supervisor Dan even tries to strategically guide the audience to ask a particular question by providing less detail during the talk(!). Having an expectation of the range of questions you might be asked allows you think of a response in advance and even prepare some additional slides that you can tack on to the end of your presentation to really address the question thoroughly. Genius!
One thing I find really helpful is to think back to a memorable presentation you’ve seen and identify what made that presentation so effective. I find myself thinking back to a presentation by an old lecturer A/Prof Greg Holwell. He effortlessly conversed with the audience with stunning photographs on his slides. I think of Dr. Camilla Whittington who had complete control of the whole room while she posed a pressing problem in her field and seamlessly addressed it with her own research. I am reminded of a keynote by Dr. Anne Gaskett, whose personality and casual presenting style made her research even more engaging. Drawing ideas from those that inspire you will help you develop your own style. Channel their confidence and composure!
Everyone responds to public speaking differently. Some thrive in the arena, while others just need fake it before they make it. I for one definitely fall in the latter category. However, over the many conferences I’ve been to I have managed to see presentations as a fun thing to do where you can show off your own work! Remember to enjoy the process and know that you are the expert of your own work.
Dominant individuals tend to have greater monopoly over food and mates and therefore have more offspring compared to subordinate individuals. Are these successes attributed to greater cognitive ability? Or are dominant individuals just better at freeloading from their clever subordinate counterparts?
We investigated whether dominant and subordinate eastern water skinks differ in their ability to learn from one and other (social learning). Previous work has shown in this species that young skinks tend to learn from older skinks, but age and dominance status and body size are inherently confounded. In other words, the age-dependent pattern may actually reflect a dominance effect, whereby young and therefore subordinate skinks tend to learn from older, dominant lizards.
In order to disassociate these confounding factors, we matched skinks closely in size and therefore age and allowed them to fight to determine their dominance statuses. Winners of the fight was considered ‘dominant’, while the loser was considered ‘subordinate’. We then divided our skink pairs into two treatment groups, a ‘control’ group, where a skink watched their status counterparts do nothing and a ‘social learning’ group, where a skink was able to watch their status counterpart solve a foraging task e.g. a subordinate skink was able to watch a dominant skink, while a dominant skink was able to watch a subordinate skink (Fig. 2)
We gave the lizards two foraging tasks. In the first task, the lizards had to learn from their status counterparts how to learn to flip a blue lid to access a worm and ignore a white lid (association task). In the second task, the lizards had to unlearn the blue lid-worm association and learn to flip the white lid for the worm (reversal task). We then recorded how many trials it took for skinks to learn these tasks.
To our surprise, lizards did not seem to learn from the other lizard but instead relied on their own trial-and-error learning abilities. This was consistent for both dominant and subordinate lizards. We also found that dominant lizards learnt faster compared to subordinate lizards.
These results tell us a few neat things about social learning in the eastern water skink. Firstly, skinks were closely matched in size but they didn’t seem to learn from watching another skink. This seems to suggest that skinks may not want to learn from an individual of similar age and actually this may actually impede learning. Secondly, dominant individuals learnt faster compared to subordinate skinks implies that dominant skinks may be less prone to the stress associated with learning in the presence of another skink or they may indeed have both brains and brawn.
For more information, check out the paper published in Animal Cognition here
Have you ever had a lull in productivity? Days where you feel like you are not achieving very much? You are not alone. In my first year of my PhD, the thing that stressed me most was not knowing whether I was productive enough. How do I track my progress? A few weeks ago, I went to a workshop on ‘A novel framework for research productivity’ run by post-doc Khandis Blake from the Sex Lab, UNSW. Inspired by Khandis’ productivity (she completed 16 studies during her PhD in 2.5 years!), I decided to blog about this and hope someone will find this helpful with their own project management as well.
Khandis had a background of business coaching. In her workshop, she drew parallehttp://www.actioncoach.com/ls between sales pipelines (derived from Action Coach) and research projects (Fig. 1). She discussed one can increase customers, revenue and profits or in research terms – the number of completed studies, submitted manuscripts and publications by working on factors that affect these key things.
For example, a business can work on converting people that walk in the store (‘leads’) into paying customers, which will ultimately increase store revenue/profits. Think store promotions or sale assistant greetings as you walk in. You can do the same with the number of completed projects by working on your leads. This can be the number of collaborations you have or own ideas you’ve identified from reading. You can focus on converting these ideas into completed projects by recruiting help with data collection (e.g. interns and student volunteers), or use a more efficient way to test your idea (e.g. theoretical models), or perhaps the data already exists and all you need to do is to put these together (e.g. meta-analyses).
Now, once a business has converted a lead to paying customer, one can increase the number transactions per sale, which will increase revenue. Think “Would you like to have fries with that?”, a line we are all too familiar with. The research equivalent of this, is the idea of publication frames i.e. number of manuscripts you can address in a single project. Can you partition your data to test multiple hypotheses? Can you collect just a bit more data (with minimal effort) so you can address another interesting question? Depending on the of results, can you segment these to tell more than one cohesiveness story?
Finally, to ultimately increase the number of publications– your manuscripts need to be submitted. Your success rate depends on a range of factors, some of which are not in your control (e.g. time in review) but you can increase your chances by making sure the story is clear, concise and well written; stick to journal guidelines; a fast turnaround with revisions or resubmissions to another journal. But there is a catch with the research pipeline…
The lag in research
Khandis emphasised that the research pipeline is long one. The time from a conceived idea to data collection, to manuscript submission and submitted and acceptance is LONG. For example, I started the data collection in early December 2014 for a paper that was accepted earlier this month (3 year pipeline!!!). This means that there is always a lag in productivity and in order to avoid lulls, here are some tips:
Research projects – especially PhDs – can be long and demanding journeys, but with a clear pipeline in mind, one can hopefully navigate this path with a bit more ease and come out on the other side with a few more papers under your belt. Good luck!
According to Shinichi, one can only deliberately practice something for no more than 4 hours. If you have trouble focussing, give Pomadoro timers a go! Do 25 minutes of completely focussed work – no emails, no distractions. Then have a 5 minute break where you can indulge in a bit of Facebook or whatever takes your fancy. Rob reckons 10 Pomadoro cycles is considered really productive day!
No reading means no writing
One of the challenges I often face is that I don’t know what to write and this is usually because I haven’t done enough reading. So it is crucial to read regularly and engage with the literature.
Tip 1. Shinichi showed us The Old Reader – an RSS subscriber that keeps ALL your alerts in one place. This is my new favourite thing! It keeps you updated to all the relevant journals and it also eliminates the ‘Table of Contents’ emails – BONUS. He recommends reading everyday, particularly influential or ‘Trends’ journals.
Tip 3. Find a reference manager and become a master of it. This will organise your reading. Highlight and take notes as you read. I find the functions in Papers3 very handy for this because your notes and highlights become searchable!
Tip 4. Don’t like reading? Why not try an audiobook or podcast? You can listen faster than you read!
Mastery of mind maps and outlines
Tip 5. Put your ideas/themes/questions/hypotheses/key papers/anything on a mind map. Maps will really help you organise your thoughts and actually make you think about how ideas are linked. I use VUE, it has a simple interface and a few core functions – that’s all you need! I’ve also used it to make figures for presentations/papers too.
Tip 6. Translate this mind map into an outline. The main ‘bubbles’ basically form the major headings of a skeletal outline. ‘Sub-bubbles’ become subheadings within the major headings. This allows you to make sure ideas flow nicely, starting from broad ideas and then honing down to specifics.
Tip 7. Transfer your notes to your outline. If some headings are low on substance, you can then go back to target your reading for those sections! EFFICIENCY!
Writing clarifies thinking
Now with your outline and notes, you can begin to write. Having your ideas chopped in sections and subsections should make workflow more manageable too, because you can work in bite-size bits. The next few tips were Russell’s contribution
Tip 8. Write for a target audience. Are you targeting specialists or to the wider field? Tailor your examples and terms you use to appeal to your audience. Use this particularly in your title.
Tip 9. Keep it simple, really. Clearly written papers have the most impact. Avoid long, vague, complex sentences. Explain your idea out loud to someone out of your field and write that down.
Tip 10. Good writing is an iterative process. Re-read your writing with fresh eyes (after a week or so) and rework those paragraphs.
Tip 11. FEEDBACK FEEDBACK FEEDBACK. Ask your writing group, your lab group and supervisors. Give people enough time to review and do the same for them. Really THINK about their edits and recommendations. Don’t just click ‘Accept all changes’.
The work and effort that goes into writing a scientific article can be overwhelming. I really think, with the right sort of tools and habits and plenty of deliberate practice, everyone can improve and write well!
For more info on deliberate practice, check out the book: “Peak: Secrets from the New Science of Expertise” by Anders Ericsson – we are currently reading it as a lab!
As researchers-in-training, we are faced with many problems and challenges that we have never encountered before. Quite often, we experience feelings of anxiety, low confidence and doubt as if we somehow slipped through the system as a fraud. Imposter Syndrome has been a term that has been thrown around in academia and the more we talk about it, the more real it seems to become. Last week I was invited to be on a panel for a postgraduate class to discuss about confidence in research. There were 5 of us panelists all at various departments and stages of our candidature.
I’ve quickly compiled a list of tips/strategies we discussed and hope those who feel out of place during their research training will recognise that we have experienced feeling like an imposter in some form or another.
People are important
Imposter like feelings can be very isolating. Feeling like you don’t belong or questioning what you are doing here. It is important to establish a small ring of people you chat/rant/banter with so you can share your experiences and more importantly you can hear the experiences of others. Knowing that other people are actually feeling the same way, makes the whole ordeal a little less isolating and it may actually bring you together as a group. Why not start a writing group? Set up a coffee group with your lab group or classmates?
Don’t be so hard on yourself and remember you are a researcher IN TRAINING.
This one came up very often, we all thought there is this expectation for researchers to really know their stuff, but in reality, we are all learning. For example, I would always stress over my writing before sending it to my supervisors. I never think it’s ready and I don’t want to waste their time and send them rubbish… but once I eventually get my comments back, which are usually minor and sometimes positive – I realised how silly it was for me to get so worked up about it. Everyone will come across obstacles, but it’s important to not beat yourself over it. Research is about learning new things, which is the most exciting part…so enjoy it! Walk away when you feel like you are not going anywhere – work on something completely different. Coming back with a fresh head (and a coffee) is usually what your brain needs.
Ask for help when you need it
I am a stubborn person and when I working on something I don’t quite understand, I refuse to ask for help because I don’t want to appear clueless. While it is good practice to try figure things out yourself first, it can be very stressful when you truly stuck. Recognise that it is okay to ask for help… bounce ideas around with your other people. Lab groups and writing groups are great for this! Otherwise, go pick your supervisor’s brains, that is why they are there! They are suppose to be there to help you through this process and show you how research is done!
Keep a folder of positive feedback or memories (warm fuzzies)
This was my tip. As I have discussed before, I am not very confident with my writing and have always stressed about the quality of my work. To help combat this anxiety, I have kept screenshots of positive feedback that I have received from my supervisors/examiners/reviewers. These little warm fuzzies will remind you that you are awesome and that you have done this before and can provide you with a little confidence boost to keep you going. Celebrate your successes!
Know what works for you
Work habits are hard develop, especially when there is quite a bit of flexibility in research. One panelist talked about how well she works at night and procrastinates a lot during the day. Moral of the story, if you work better at night, then do it. No point working unproductively. My habits a slightly different, I work better in the morning at the office. I work in bursts, 1- 2 hours and I will need a quick break. Towards the end of my Masters, I was so stressed and tired, I needed to nap for about 10 mins in the late afternoon in order for me to keep going for a few more hours. It’s hard to know what “works for you”, but take the time to reflect on productive and nonproductive days. What did you do? What was happening? What was it about the environment that helped you focus? Slowly you will notice patterns in what, when, how you are doing things to enable you to work at your optimum
Work life balance
This is hard one to develop! I personally am not very good at this. I moved to Australia to do my Masters and I barely did any travelling because I was freaking out about how much I had to get done. However, once I handed in and was working as a research assistant, I was able to develop some balance. I made a routine to go to the gym in the mornings before I started work. This made huge improvements to my stress levels and it made me work a lot more efficiently because there are fewer hours left in the day. Again, make time in advance to catch up with friends! This is important and it gives you time to talk about your work/something else and surprisingly, it can really help you unwind!
Remember: you are amazing and that must have been doing something right to get this far. Keep being awesome and never stop doing what you love.